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Four Periods of Chinese Tea Culture
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  The Formation Period of Tea Culture in Tang Dynasty   In Sui and Tang Dynasties, tea was processed into cake tea. When drinking, add condiments to cook soup. With the prosperity of tea affairs and the emergence of tribute tea, the development of tea cultivation and processing technology has been accelerated. Many famous teas have emerged, and the method of drinking has been greatly improved. In order to improve the bitterness and astringency of tea, mint, salt and jujube were added. In addition, special tea cooking utensils have been used, and the way of drinking tea has changed dramatically, from extensive style to slow-frying style.   The custom of drinking tea in Tang Dynasty became popular, and more and more attention was paid to the choice of tea and water, the way of cooking and the environment of drinking tea. Tea banquets are popular among palaces, monasteries and scholars. The atmosphere of tea banquets is solemn, the environment is elegant and the etiquette is strict. Tribute tea or high-grade tea must be used to fetch water from famous and clear springs, and precious tea sets should be selected. The formation of tea culture in the flourishing Tang Dynasty was related to the development of Buddhism, imperial examination system, flourishing poetry style, the rise of tribute tea, prohibition of alcohol and so on.   Around 780 A.D., Lu Yu wrote The Book of Tea, explaining the thoughts of tea science, tea art and tea ceremony. During this period, because of the emergence of tea people, the pursuit of drinking tea for water, tea, tea sets and fried tea reached an extremely elegant and luxurious level, so that in the late Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, a luxurious trend appeared in tea culture.   2. The Prosperous Period of Tea Culture: Song Dynasty   By the Song Dynasty, tea culture continued to develop and deepen, forming a unique cultural taste. Zhao Kuangxu, Taizu of the Song Dynasty, liked drinking tea himself. Tea authorities were set up in the palace, and the use of tea in the palace had been graded. As for the lower class, when the common people move, their neighbors should "offer tea"; when guests come, they should respect "Yuanbao tea"; when engaged, they should "offer tea"; when married, they should "fix tea".   In the academic field, due to the southward migration of tea industry, the Beiyuan Garden of Jian'an is the most important place for Gongcha. Tea researchers tend to study Jiancha. Among the tea works in Song Dynasty, the famous ones are Ye Qingchen's "Essays on Tea Boiling", Caixiang's "Tea Record", Zhu Zian's "Dongxi Tea Testing Record", Shen Kuo's "Tea Law of the Present Dynasty" and Zhao Biao's "Daguan Tea Theory".   Song Dynasty is the most active era of tea drinking activities in history. Because of the integration of tea drinking culture between the north and the south, tea house culture began to emerge. Teahouse was called tea house in Southern Song Dynasty. At that time, tea drinking business in Linan City continued day and night. In addition, tea drinking activities in Song Dynasty began with tribute tea, and derived from "embroidered tea", "fighting tea" and "dividing tea" and other forms of entertainment.   3. The Period of Sustainable Development of Tea Culture: Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties   Song people made tea a thriving cause, but also made tea art go to complexity, triviality and luxury, lost the original simplicity and chat of tea culture, too fine tea art drowned the spirit of tea culture in Tang Dynasty. Since the Yuan Dynasty, tea culture has entered a tortuous period of development. Until the mid-Ming Dynasty, the Han people felt the rise and fall of the nation in the previous dynasty, coupled with the difficulty of founding the country, in the tea culture showed simplicity and the harmony between man and nature, to reveal their hardships with tea.   At this time, tea has been steamed, fried, baked and other types of green tea, tea drinking has been changed to "soak up and dispel". Many scholars in the Ming Dynasty left works handed down from generation to generation, such as Tang Bohu's "Tea Painting Scroll" and "Tea Tasting Picture". There are more kinds of tea and different skills in making tea. The style, texture and pattern of tea sets are varied. From late Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty, fine tea culture appeared again. Although tea making and cooking did not return to the triviality of Song people, the tea style tended to be weak.   During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the development of teahouses was very rapid. Some of the residents in the town had only a few cadres, and the number of teahouses could reach more than 100. In addition to literati, businessmen and handicraftsmen, there are also businessmen and handicraftsmen who drink tea. In the teahouse, refreshments and food are served, and storytelling and singing programs are added, which is tantamount to a folk entertainment place.   IV. A Brilliant Period of the Reproduction of Tea Culture: Contemporary Times   Although Chinese tea culture has existed since ancient times, its revival in the contemporary era began in the 1980s. Taiwan is the earliest revival place of modern tea art and tea ceremony. On the mainland, after the founding of New China, tea production in China has developed rapidly. The rich material basis provides a solid foundation for the development of tea culture.   Since the 1990s, a group of tea culture researchers have created a number of professional works, which have made positive contributions to the establishment of contemporary tea culture, such as Huang Zhigen's "Chinese tea culture", Chen Wenhua's "tea culture in the Yangtze River valley", Yao Guokun's "Introduction to tea culture", Yu Yue's "Questioning Customs", and carried out systematic thematic research on various aspects of tea culture discipline. These achievements have laid the foundation for the establishment of tea culture discipline.   With the rise of tea culture, there are more and more tea cultural organizations and activities around the world. Tea art activities organized by some famous tea producing areas have gradually become large-scale, brand-oriented and industrialized, which has promoted the popularization and popularity of tea culture in society.
The origin of tea is beyond your imagination.
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  All things are wonderful! Tea, Jiamu of the South! It is in the mountains and rivers, as long as there is a suitable environment, it can absorb the essence of the sun and the moon, absorb the spirit of heaven and earth, and thrive! Tea, as our country's drink, can be said to be the most familiar part of our Chinese people! Chinese people open the door seven things: firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce, vinegar, tea, that is to say, tea is a holiday. Son is an indispensable necessities of life, but for tea, most people seem to have a little bit of knowledge and contact every day, but when asked deeply, they can not say why. Tea can be said to be the most familiar stranger in China.   So what is the magical substance in tea, let us "admire" it from ancient times to the present? Since the last century, tea, an ancient and magical field, has attracted the exploration of natural scientists. A large number of science and technology have studied and analyzed the substance in tea, so as to open the door for us to understand the origin of tea. When a piece of tea is broken and crushed, its contents are almost the same. The difference of each cup of tea lies in the different state of these elements, the different transformation and the different proportion. It's like everyone's talent is almost the same. In the process of growing up, because of different experiences and different experiences, you are unique, and so is tea.   The substance in a piece of tea   1. Moisture (75%-78%)   The scientific basis of "four catties of tea and one catty of tea". About 75% of the fresh leaves are water, and the remaining quarter is dry tea. )   The water content of fresh tea leaves varies according to their tenderness, varieties and seasons. Generally, the water content of young buds and large leaves is higher in rainy season and spring, while that of old leaves, middle and small leaves and dry and sunny leaves is lower.   2. Tea polyphenols (20%-35% of total dry matter)   Tea Polyphenols are the generic names of catechins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in tea. Catechin accounts for about 70% of the total amount of tea polyphenols, which is an important component determining the color, aroma and taste of tea. Tea polyphenols can keep tea for a long time without deterioration, which is beyond the reach of most other trees, flowers and vegetables. Rich in polyphenols is the main distinguishing feature between tea and other plants.   The main functions of tea polyphenols on human body are: reducing blood sugar and lipid; activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, inhibiting arteriosclerosis; antioxidant, delaying aging; bacteriostasis, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus; inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells; eliminating halitosis, etc. In addition, tea polyphenols can protect the brain from radiation damage to the skin and eyes, so tea drinks rich in tea polyphenols are known as "drinks in the computer age".   3. Alkaloids (2%-5% of total dry matter)   Tea contains caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, which can be dissolved in water. Caffeine is the main component of tea, which is bitter and astringent. Together with tea polyphenols and amino acids, it is the three main components that determine the taste quality of tea.   Theine is a kind of alkaloids, which can be used as cardiac and respiratory stimulants in medicine, and also an important antipyretic analgesic. The effects of caffeine on human body are as follows: exciting the nervous central system, helping people to stimulate their spirits, enhancing their thinking, resisting fatigue and improving their work efficiency; stimulating the central and peripheral vascular systems has exciting and strong effects, which can relieve bronchospasm and promote blood circulation, and is an adjuvant drug for treating asthma, cough and phlegm, and myocardial infarction; caffeine can also directly stimulate myocardial infarction. Excitation of respiratory center; diuresis, temperature regulation and resistance to alcoholic nicotine poisoning.   Caffeine mainly exists in tea, coffee, cocoa and other plants, which is sparsely distributed in the plant kingdom and less concentrated in the leaves like tea. Therefore, the presence or absence of caffeine can be used as one of the criteria for judging true or false tea. It usually contains about 40 mg of caffeine every 150 ml of tea soup. Caffeine is weak alkaline and can dissolve rapidly at 80 C.   Protein (20%-30% of total dry matter)   Protein, discovered in 1838 by the Dutch scientist gerrit, is essential to human life. The basic component of protein is amino acid. Human growth, development, movement, reproduction and all other activities are inseparable from protein, it can be said that there is no life without protein. There are many kinds of proteins in human body, and their functions are different, accounting for about 16.3% of the body weight. Only 1%-2% of the protein in tea can be dissolved in water and directly utilized. This part of water-soluble protein is one of the main components to form the taste of tea soup.   5. Amino acids (1%-4% of total dry matter)   Amino acids (Amino Acids) are organic compounds with carboxyl and amino groups in a molecule. Amino Acids are the basic unit of human body. They are closely related to biological activities. They are not only the material basis of human life, but also the basis of metabolism. Amino acids are the main contributors to the fresh and refreshing taste of tea. They not only neutralize the bitter and astringent taste of polyphenols and caffeine, but also evolve the ever-changing charming aroma, which is an indispensable part of high-grade tea products.   Tea contains about 28 kinds of amino acids, such as theanine, methionine, threonine, leucine and so on. These acids play an important role in the functioning of human body, for example, leucine can promote cell regeneration and accelerate wound healing; threonine, leptin and histidine are positive for human body.
Four Periods of Chinese Tea Culture
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  The Formation Period of Tea Culture in Tang Dynasty   In Sui and Tang Dynasties, tea was processed into cake tea. When drinking, add condiments to cook soup. With the prosperity of tea affairs and the emergence of tribute tea, the development of tea cultivation and processing technology has been accelerated. Many famous teas have emerged, and the method of drinking has been greatly improved. In order to improve the bitterness and astringency of tea, mint, salt and jujube were added. In addition, special tea cooking utensils have been used, and the way of drinking tea has changed dramatically, from extensive style to slow-frying style.   The custom of drinking tea in Tang Dynasty became popular, and more and more attention was paid to the choice of tea and water, the way of cooking and the environment of drinking tea. Tea banquets are popular among palaces, monasteries and scholars. The atmosphere of tea banquets is solemn, the environment is elegant and the etiquette is strict. Tribute tea or high-grade tea must be used to fetch water from famous and clear springs, and precious tea sets should be selected. The formation of tea culture in the flourishing Tang Dynasty was related to the development of Buddhism, imperial examination system, flourishing poetry style, the rise of tribute tea, prohibition of alcohol and so on.   Around 780 A.D., Lu Yu wrote The Book of Tea, explaining the thoughts of tea science, tea art and tea ceremony. During this period, because of the emergence of tea people, the pursuit of drinking tea for water, tea, tea sets and fried tea reached an extremely elegant and luxurious level, so that in the late Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, a luxurious trend appeared in tea culture.   2. The Prosperous Period of Tea Culture: Song Dynasty   By the Song Dynasty, tea culture continued to develop and deepen, forming a unique cultural taste. Zhao Kuangxu, Taizu of the Song Dynasty, liked drinking tea himself. Tea authorities were set up in the palace, and the use of tea in the palace had been graded. As for the lower class, when the common people move, their neighbors should "offer tea"; when guests come, they should respect "Yuanbao tea"; when engaged, they should "offer tea"; when married, they should "fix tea".   In the academic field, due to the southward migration of tea industry, the Beiyuan Garden of Jian'an is the most important place for Gongcha. Tea researchers tend to study Jiancha. Among the tea works in Song Dynasty, the famous ones are Ye Qingchen's "Essays on Tea Boiling", Caixiang's "Tea Record", Zhu Zian's "Dongxi Tea Testing Record", Shen Kuo's "Tea Law of the Present Dynasty" and Zhao Biao's "Daguan Tea Theory".   Song Dynasty is the most active era of tea drinking activities in history. Because of the integration of tea drinking culture between the north and the south, tea house culture began to emerge. Teahouse was called tea house in Southern Song Dynasty. At that time, tea drinking business in Linan City continued day and night. In addition, tea drinking activities in Song Dynasty began with tribute tea, and derived from "embroidered tea", "fighting tea" and "dividing tea" and other forms of entertainment.   3. The Period of Sustainable Development of Tea Culture: Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties   Song people made tea a thriving cause, but also made tea art go to complexity, triviality and luxury, lost the original simplicity and chat of tea culture, too fine tea art drowned the spirit of tea culture in Tang Dynasty. Since the Yuan Dynasty, tea culture has entered a tortuous period of development. Until the mid-Ming Dynasty, the Han people felt the rise and fall of the nation in the previous dynasty, coupled with the difficulty of founding the country, in the tea culture showed simplicity and the harmony between man and nature, to reveal their hardships with tea.   At this time, tea has been steamed, fried, baked and other types of green tea, tea drinking has been changed to "soak up and dispel". Many scholars in the Ming Dynasty left works handed down from generation to generation, such as Tang Bohu's "Tea Painting Scroll" and "Tea Tasting Picture". There are more kinds of tea and different skills in making tea. The style, texture and pattern of tea sets are varied. From late Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty, fine tea culture appeared again. Although tea making and cooking did not return to the triviality of Song people, the tea style tended to be weak.   During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the development of teahouses was very rapid. Some of the residents in the town had only a few cadres, and the number of teahouses could reach more than 100. In addition to literati, businessmen and handicraftsmen, there are also businessmen and handicraftsmen who drink tea. In the teahouse, refreshments and food are served, and storytelling and singing programs are added, which is tantamount to a folk entertainment place.   IV. A Brilliant Period of the Reproduction of Tea Culture: Contemporary Times   Although Chinese tea culture has existed since ancient times, its revival in the contemporary era began in the 1980s. Taiwan is the earliest revival place of modern tea art and tea ceremony. On the mainland, after the founding of New China, tea production in China has developed rapidly. The rich material basis provides a solid foundation for the development of tea culture.   Since the 1990s, a group of tea culture researchers have created a number of professional works, which have made positive contributions to the establishment of contemporary tea culture, such as Huang Zhigen's "Chinese tea culture", Chen Wenhua's "tea culture in the Yangtze River valley", Yao Guokun's "Introduction to tea culture", Yu Yue's "Questioning Customs", and carried out systematic thematic research on various aspects of tea culture discipline. These achievements have laid the foundation for the establishment of tea culture discipline.   With the rise of tea culture, there are more and more tea cultural organizations and activities around the world. Tea art activities organized by some famous tea producing areas have gradually become large-scale, brand-oriented and industrialized, which has promoted the popularization and popularity of tea culture in society.
Can you drink tea with grease on the surface of tea soup?
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  People who don't often drink tea feel terrified when they see a layer of grease floating on the tea soup. Maybe they think that the cup is not washed or the tea is out of date. They don't even want to drink this cup of tea. Actually, you think too much. Today, let me unveil the mystery of this layer of grease for you.   Tea Krypton at First Eye   This layer of oil floating on the surface of tea soup is as thin and slippery as silk, and as a mist that distinguishes tea soup from worldly things, it has a very beautiful scientific name - "tea curl", which gives the first image of a bowl of tea.   Why Tea Krypton Forms   The formation of tea mat is due to the fact that the fat-soluble substances contained in tea are immersed in water, but they are lighter than water before they float on the surface. The formation of tea curl is mainly related to the following aspects:   The content of fat-soluble substances in tea   Since tea is brewed by fat-soluble substances, the fat-soluble substances in tea play a decisive role at that time. The more fat-soluble substances in tea, the more obvious the oil on the surface of tea soup.   (2) Water temperature   The higher the water temperature used for tea brewing, the more tea extracts. Therefore, tea brewed in 100 degree boiling water will produce more fat-soluble substances and more oil on the surface of tea soup.   3. Temperature   Everyone can clearly feel that the oil layer on the surface of chafing dish is faster than that in summer when eating chafing dish in winter. This is because the temperature difference between inside and outside of the soup noodles is too big, and the oil layer is more likely to appear. This is also the reason for drinking tea. When the temperature is low, it is more likely to appear the tea mat than when the temperature is high.   Teaware   If tea is served in purple clay pots or dark tea sets, the teapot may not be visible, but when white porcelain or glass tea sets are used, the teapot becomes more visible after comparison.   Can the tea curl be the basis for judging whether a tea is good or bad?   Generally speaking, Chen tea is easier to brew the tea mat, and the tea with the tea mat tastes more mellow and thick, so the dark tea mat is more prominent than the light tea. For example, the tea mat of Pu'er ripe tea is obvious, the tea soup is dark and bright, and the surface oil adds a lot to Pu'er tea soup. But whether there is a tea mat or not can not be used as a basis for whether a tea is good or not. So don't be afraid to drink the greasy tea, as long as your cup is clean, don't doubt the safety of tea.
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