All things are wonderful! Tea, Jiamu of the South! It is in the mountains and rivers, as long as there is a suitable environment, it can absorb the essence of the sun and the moon, absorb the spirit of heaven and earth, and thrive! Tea, as our country's drink, can be said to be the most familiar part of our Chinese people! Chinese people open the door seven things: firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce, vinegar, tea, that is to say, tea is a holiday. Son is an indispensable necessities of life, but for tea, most people seem to have a little bit of knowledge and contact every day, but when asked deeply, they can not say why. Tea can be said to be the most familiar stranger in China.
So what is the magical substance in tea, let us "admire" it from ancient times to the present? Since the last century, tea, an ancient and magical field, has attracted the exploration of natural scientists. A large number of science and technology have studied and analyzed the substance in tea, so as to open the door for us to understand the origin of tea. When a piece of tea is broken and crushed, its contents are almost the same. The difference of each cup of tea lies in the different state of these elements, the different transformation and the different proportion. It's like everyone's talent is almost the same. In the process of growing up, because of different experiences and different experiences, you are unique, and so is tea.
The substance in a piece of tea
1. Moisture (75%-78%)
The scientific basis of "four catties of tea and one catty of tea". About 75% of the fresh leaves are water, and the remaining quarter is dry tea. )
The water content of fresh tea leaves varies according to their tenderness, varieties and seasons. Generally, the water content of young buds and large leaves is higher in rainy season and spring, while that of old leaves, middle and small leaves and dry and sunny leaves is lower.
2. Tea polyphenols (20%-35% of total dry matter)
Tea Polyphenols are the generic names of catechins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in tea. Catechin accounts for about 70% of the total amount of tea polyphenols, which is an important component determining the color, aroma and taste of tea. Tea polyphenols can keep tea for a long time without deterioration, which is beyond the reach of most other trees, flowers and vegetables. Rich in polyphenols is the main distinguishing feature between tea and other plants.
The main functions of tea polyphenols on human body are: reducing blood sugar and lipid; activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, inhibiting arteriosclerosis; antioxidant, delaying aging; bacteriostasis, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus; inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells; eliminating halitosis, etc. In addition, tea polyphenols can protect the brain from radiation damage to the skin and eyes, so tea drinks rich in tea polyphenols are known as "drinks in the computer age".
3. Alkaloids (2%-5% of total dry matter)
Tea contains caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, which can be dissolved in water. Caffeine is the main component of tea, which is bitter and astringent. Together with tea polyphenols and amino acids, it is the three main components that determine the taste quality of tea.
Theine is a kind of alkaloids, which can be used as cardiac and respiratory stimulants in medicine, and also an important antipyretic analgesic. The effects of caffeine on human body are as follows: exciting the nervous central system, helping people to stimulate their spirits, enhancing their thinking, resisting fatigue and improving their work efficiency; stimulating the central and peripheral vascular systems has exciting and strong effects, which can relieve bronchospasm and promote blood circulation, and is an adjuvant drug for treating asthma, cough and phlegm, and myocardial infarction; caffeine can also directly stimulate myocardial infarction. Excitation of respiratory center; diuresis, temperature regulation and resistance to alcoholic nicotine poisoning.
Caffeine mainly exists in tea, coffee, cocoa and other plants, which is sparsely distributed in the plant kingdom and less concentrated in the leaves like tea. Therefore, the presence or absence of caffeine can be used as one of the criteria for judging true or false tea. It usually contains about 40 mg of caffeine every 150 ml of tea soup. Caffeine is weak alkaline and can dissolve rapidly at 80 C.
Protein (20%-30% of total dry matter)
Protein, discovered in 1838 by the Dutch scientist gerrit, is essential to human life. The basic component of protein is amino acid. Human growth, development, movement, reproduction and all other activities are inseparable from protein, it can be said that there is no life without protein. There are many kinds of proteins in human body, and their functions are different, accounting for about 16.3% of the body weight. Only 1%-2% of the protein in tea can be dissolved in water and directly utilized. This part of water-soluble protein is one of the main components to form the taste of tea soup.
5. Amino acids (1%-4% of total dry matter)
Amino acids (Amino Acids) are organic compounds with carboxyl and amino groups in a molecule. Amino Acids are the basic unit of human body. They are closely related to biological activities. They are not only the material basis of human life, but also the basis of metabolism. Amino acids are the main contributors to the fresh and refreshing taste of tea. They not only neutralize the bitter and astringent taste of polyphenols and caffeine, but also evolve the ever-changing charming aroma, which is an indispensable part of high-grade tea products.
Tea contains about 28 kinds of amino acids, such as theanine, methionine, threonine, leucine and so on. These acids play an important role in the functioning of human body, for example, leucine can promote cell regeneration and accelerate wound healing; threonine, leptin and histidine are positive for human body.